|Neem Granules are used as a natural and environmental friendly fertilizer and manure in farming and agriculture. Neem Granules is the residue left after oil has been extracted from neem seeds or kernel. It has the highest azadirachtin content as compared to other parts of the neem tree.|| |
Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of neem (Azadirachta indica). The neem is very useful tree due to its medicinal and insecticidal properties and can be grown even under semi arid and subhumid conditions upto 700m above sea level. Neem seeds contain up to 45% oil, non-edible in nature. A neem seed contains about 47% oil. The oil is vegetable type oil composed primarily of glycerides (80 to 95%) and free fatty acids (4 to 20%). It is bio-degradable natural plant material. It has no phytotoxicity (damaging properties to the plant tissues) in lower ranges (like1to3%).
Neem oil is generally light to dark brown, bitter and has a rather strong odour that is said to combine the odours of peanut and garlic. It comprises mainly triglycerides and large amounts of triterpenoid compounds, which are responsible for the bitter taste. It is hydrophobic in nature and in order to emulsify it in water for application purposes, it must be formulated with appropriate surfactants. Neem oil also contains steroids (campesterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol) and many triterpenoids of which azadirachtin is the most well known and studied. The azadirachtin content of neem oil varies from 300ppm to over 2500ppm depending on the extraction technology and quality of the neem seeds crushed.
Biolgical effects of neem on insects :
Neem Cake organic manure is the by-product obtained in the process of cold pressing of neem tree fruits and kernels, and the solvent extraction process for neem oil cake.
Neem cake has an adequate quantity of NPK in organic form for plant growth. Being a totally botanical product it contains 100% natural NPK content and other essential micro nutrients as N (Nitrogen 2.0% to 5.0%), P (Phosphorus 0.5% to 1.0%), K (Potassium 1.0% to 2.0%), Ca (Calcium 0.5% to 3.0%), Mg (Magnesium 0.3% to 1.0%), S (sulphur 0.2% to 3.0%), Zn (Zinc 15 ppm to 60 ppm), Cu (Copper 4 ppm to 20 ppm), Fe (iron 500 ppm to 1200 ppm), Mn (Manganese 20 ppm to 60 ppm). It is rich in both sulphur compounds and bitter limonoids. According to research calculations, neem cake seems to make soil more fertile due to an ingredient that blocks soil bacteria from converting nitrogenous compounds into nitrogen gas. It is a nitrification inhibitor and prolongs the availability of nitrogen to both short duration and long duration crops.
Use as a fertilizer :
Neem cake organic manure protects plant roots from nematodes, soil grubs and white ants probably due to its content of the residual limonoids. It also acts as a natural fertilizer with pesticidal properties. Neem cake is widely used in india to fertilize paddy, cotton and sugarcane. Usage of neem cake have shown an increase in the dry matter in Tectona grandis (teak), Acacia nilotica (gum arabic), and other forest trees.
Neem seed cakes also reduce alkalinity in soil, as it produces organic acids on decomposition. Being totally natural, it is compatible with soil microbes, improves and rhizosphere microflora and hence ensures fertility of the soil. Neem cake improves the organic matter content of the soil, helping improvement in soil texture, water holding capacity, soil aeration for better root development.
1. Pest controller
Neem extract is effective in the management of insects and pests. The bitter principles of the soil and cake have been reported to have seven types of activities (a) antifeedant (b) attractant (c) repellent (d) insecticide (e) nematicide (f) growth disruptor and (g) antimicrobial. The extract contains salannin, nimbin, azadirachtin and azadiradione as the major components. Of these, azadirachtin and meliantriol are used as locust antifeedants while salannin is used as an antifeedant for the housefly.
Folicon (with enhanced azardichitin content)